Silver short cross penny of Henry II
This coin, struck in Winchester by the moneyer Miles, is known as a 'short cross' penny because the cross on the back (which made easier the production of cut halfpennies and farthings) extends only as far as the circle of lettering. This design was introduced by Henry II (1154-1189) in 1180. Coins bearing his name, Henricus Rex, continued to be issued under Richard I and John, and under Henry III until 1247, when a 'long cross' design replaced them. Short cross pennies were coined in twenty mints, a substantial reduction on the seventy-five or so striking for the late Saxon and Norman kings.